A 44th round draft selection of the Mets in 1993, Wilson batted .274 with four home runs and 21 RBI in 2004 and received extended playing time in each of the last two seasons when Piazza went down to injury.
"Vance has been a valuable contributor to our team over the last few years," Mets GM Omar Minaya said. "However, this trade enables us to capitalize on our catching depth to add a young, switch-hitting shortstop to our minor league system."
Anderson, 22, was voted by Baseball America as the best defensive infielder and the best defensive arm in the Tigers organization in each of the last three years.
A .258 career hitter over 424 minor league games, Anderson spent most of last season at Double-A Erie, batting .274 with five home runs, 29 RBI and 17 stolen bases in 101 games. He also hit .309 with six doubles, three triples and 14 RBI in 37 games for Lakeland (A) of the Florida State League.
With the move, Jason Phillips, Mike Jacobs and Joe Hietpas figure to compete for playing time as Piazza's backup in spring training.